Dyslexia is a difference in acquiring reading, spelling and writing skills, that is neurological in origin.
The cognitive difficulties that cause these differences can also affect organisational skills, calculation abilities etc.
It may be caused by a combination of difficulties in phonological processing, working memory, rapid naming, sequencing and the automaticity of basic skills.
Alongside these issues is the ongoing challenge for people with dyslexia navigating through life in a largely non-dyslexia friendly world.
Researchers acknowledge that there are many possible causes of dyslexia, including genetics.
There is no relationship between a person's level of intelligence, individual effort of socio-economic position and the presence of dyslexia.
Furthermore, across Europe the diversity of languages and the multilingual demands, socio-cultural backgrounds as well as educational opportunity, have a significant influence on the life-chances for dyslexic children and adults.
Strengths and weaknesses
While there is concern about how dyslexia manifests itself negatively as a learning difficulty, research has highlighted some positive aspects to being dyslexic.
Many dyslexic people are good at architecture, engineering and other creative arts. They can also be good at acting, lateral thinking and often make good managers in people-related occupations.
If given the appropriate help for their areas of difficulty, there is no reason whu a dyslexic person should not be a high achiever and/or gain a university degree – many have done so.